Volume 16, Issue 2 (8-2022)                   مرتع 2022, 16(2): 331-344 | Back to browse issues page

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Khakzar A, Farzam M, Mesdaghi M, Mohammadzadh Chenar H. Effects of pit shape and size and planting methods on early establishment of wild pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) seedlings in Khajeh Kalat protected area., Khorasan razavi Province. مرتع. 2022; 16 (2) :331-344
URL: http://rangelandsrm.ir/article-1-1051-en.html
Department of Rangeland and Watershed Management, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad
Abstract:   (368 Views)
Background and objectives: Drought, soil erosion and continuous harvesting of wild pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) have prevented the natural regeneration of this valuable species in the woodland of Khajeh Kalat. Management of surface runoff and soil moisture storage in the root media of seedling, plus reducing competition by the invasive plants such as (Poa bulbosa and Carex stenophylla) seems to improve the establishment of this plant in the nature. This study was aimed to evaluate efficiency of different sizes and shapes of water harvesting basins on the initial establishment of wild pistachio seedlings in its natural habitat.
Methodology: An area with dimensions of 26.5 × 80 (m2), was considered as a project implementation area. The study conducted in the autumn of 2019 in the pistachio woodlands of Khajeh Kalat in Khorasan Razavi. Two planting methods and two pit shapes (basins versus curves) and four pit sizes were tested. Basin sizes were control, 20, 50, and 100 cm, but curve shaped pits were as control (i.e., planting seedlings at ground level) or 10×20, 25×50, and 50×100 cm diameter. A total of 8 replicates were used. Experiment was conducted in a randomized complete design under field conditions. Evaluation of established seeds and seedlings were done in the growing seasons during May and July 2020. Height and survival of cultivated seedlings were measured. Soil moisture and temperature were also measured at the root zone. Data analysis (analysis of covariance, Random/ Nest) and comparison of mean data of height, moisture and temperature, with Tukey test at (P≤0.05) was performed in Minitab.V19 software. The correlation between the measured characteristics was also measured in May and July. The relationship between soil moisture and temperature with seedling survival were assessed by logistic regression. Survival data were performed by chi- square test, due to existence of counting data (0, 1) and nominal variability.
Results: The results showed higher seedling establishment for seedling planting than seed cultivation. In pot cultivation, the highest survival and height of seedlings, as well as the highest moisture and the lowest temperature near the roots of the plant were in the basins and curves shaped pits with dimensions of 50 and 100 cm. Curve pits (50) led to the highest seedling height, followed by curves pit (100), basins pit (100) and basins pit (50), respectively. The lowest seedling height was found in the control treatment. Basin (100 cm), had the highest amount of seedling soil moisture, followed by curves pit (100), curves pit (50) and basins pit (50), respectively. The lowest moisture content of the pits was related to the control treatment. The results of logistic regression between seedling survival in July, with temperature and moisture of pits in May were also significant (P≤0.05), and it was found that with increasing moisture, the survival increased, and with increasing temperature, the survival decreased. Similarly, basins and curves shaped pits with dimensions of 50 and 100 cm had the greatest effect on reducing invasive plants and thus helped the survival of wild pistachio seedlings.
Conclusion: Drought stress and seed dormancy may explain the reasons for low seed germination, in seed cultivation treatment. By increasing the length of the basins and the curves diameter, the runoff collection region increases and more water volume is provided to the seedlings. Destruction on small curves, with a diameter of 20 and basins with length of 20 cm, reduced their efficiency. Generally, with the increase of the size of the curves and the basins, the possibility of establishing pistachio seedlings increases.
 
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special
Received: 2021/09/11 | Accepted: 2021/11/28 | Published: 2022/08/1

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